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How to Perform the Rituals of Hajj and Umrah
How to Perform the Rituals of Hajj and Umrah
by Shaikh Muhammad As-Salih Al-Uthaimeen, may Allah have mercy on him
In The Name of Allah, Most Gracious, Most Merciful
Praise be to Allah, Lord of the Universe. May peace and blessings be upon Muhammad, the last of the prophets and messengers, and upon his family and esteemed companions.
Hajj is one of the best forms of worship and is one of the most sublime deeds. It is one of the greatest pillars of Islam that Allah sent Muhammad with (may the peace and blessings of Allah be upon him). A servant’s religion is incomplete without it.
A form of worship is only acceptable when the following is true:
1. One devotes it to Allah alone, with a desire for the Hereafter. It cannot be done with the intention of being seen among men or for worldly gain.
2. One follows the Prophet's example, in words and deeds. This cannot be accomplished except by knowledge of the Sunnah.
Forms of Pilgrimage
Forms of Pilgrimage
There are three forms of Hajj:
Tamattu': A pilgrim wears Ihram for Umrah only during the months of Hajj, which means that when he reaches Mecca, he makes Tawaf and Sa’i for Umrah. He then shaves or clips his hair. On the day of Tarwiya, which is the eighth of Dhul-Hijjah, he puts on his Ihram for Hajj only and carries out all of its requirements.
Ifraad: A pilgrim wears Ihram for Hajj only. When he reaches Mecca, he performs Tawaf for his arrival and Sa’i for Hajj. He doesn’t shave or clip his hair, as he doesn't disengage from Ihram. Instead, he remains in Ihram till after he stones Jamrah Al-Aqaba on the Eid day. It is permissible for him to postpone his Sa’i for Hajj until after his Tawaf for Hajj.
Qiran: A pilgrim wears Ihram for both Umrah and Hajj or he wears Ihram first for Umrah, and then makes intentions for Hajj before his Tawaf for Hajj. The obligations on one performing Ifraad are the same as those on one performing Qiran, except that the latter must slaughter whereas the former is not obligated to do so. The best of the three forms is Tamattu’. It is the form that the prophet (may the peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) encouraged his followers to perform. Even if a pilgrim makes intentions to perform Qiran or Ifraad he is allowed to change his intentions to Tamattu'; he can do this even after he has performed Tawaf and Sa’i.
When the Prophet (may the peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) performed Tawaf and Sa’i during the year of the Farewell Hajj with his companions, he ordered all those who hadn't brought sacrificial animals to change their intentions for Hajj to intentions for Umrah, cut their hair, and disengage from Ihram till Hajj. He said, “If I hadn't brought the sacrificial animal, I'd have done what I've ordered you to do.”
If a pilgrim wishes to be ritually pure for Umrah, he should shed his clothing and bathe as he would after sexual defilement, if convenient. He should perfume his head and beard with the best oil he can find. There is no harm in what remains of it after Ihram.
Bathing for Ihram is Sunnah for both men and women, including menstruating women and those experiencing postnatal bleeding. After bathing and preparing himself, a. pilgrim, other than those menstruating or experiencing postnatal bleeding, prays the obligatory prayer, if it is time. Otherwise, he makes his intention by praying the two Sunnah Rak’ahs, which are made each time Wudu is performed.
When he finishes his prayer he should say: “Here I am for Umrah, here I am, Oh Allah, here I am. Here I am. You have no partner. Here I am. Surely all praise, grace and dominion is Yours, and You have no partner” (known as the talbiyah).
A man raises his voice when saying this and a woman says it so that only one beside her may hear her.
One in Ihram should say the talbiyah as often as possible, especially when times and places change. For example: when descending or ascending during travel or when day or night approach. He should also ask Allah for His pleasure, for Heaven and seek refuge in Allah’s mercy from Hellfire.
One should say the talbiyah during Umrah, starting from the time he puts on his Ihram till he starts the Tawaf (around the Ka’bah). During Hajj he should say it starting from the time he puts on his Ihram till he starts to stone the Jamrah Al-Aqabah on the day of ‘Eid.
When a pilgrim enters the Holy Mosque he puts forth his right foot first and says: “In the name of Allah, and may the peace and blessings be upon the Messenger of Allah. Oh Allah, forgive me my sins and open to me the doors of Your mercy. I seek refuge in Allah the Almighty and in His Noble Face and in His Eternal Dominion from the accursed Satan.”
He approaches the Black Stone, touches it with his right hand and kisses it. If this isn't possible, he should face the Black Stone and point to it.
It is best not to push and shove, causing harm and being harmed by other people.
When touching the Stone (or pointing to it), a pilgrim should say the following: “In the name of Allah, Allah is the Greatest (Bismillah, Allahu Akbar). Oh, Allah, with faith in You, belief in Your Book, loyalty to You, compliance to the way of Your Prophet Muhammad (may the peace and blessings of Allah be upon him)."
A pilgrim must walk, keeping the Ka'bah on his left. When he reaches the Rukn Al-Yamani (the Yamani Corner) he should touch it (if possible), but not kiss it, and say: “Our Lord, grant us good in this life and good in the hereafter and save us from the punishment of the Hellfire. Oh Allah, I beg of you for forgiveness and health in this life and in the Hereafter.”
Each time he passes the Black Stone he should say: “Allah is the Greatest (Allahu Akbar).”
During the remainder of his Tawaf he may say what he pleases of supplications, remembrance of Allah, and recitation of Quran. This is because Tawaf, Sa’i, and the Stoning of the Jamrah have all been ordained for the purpose of remembering Allah.
During this Tawaf it is necessary for a man to do two things:
When he completes seven circuits of Tawaf, he approaches Maqam Ibrahim and recites: "And take ye the station of Abraham as a place of Prayer" Chapter 2, Verse 125 [2:125].
He prays two short raka’ahs, as close as conveniently possible, behind Maqam Ibrahim. During the first rakaat he recites Surah Al-Kafirun [Chapter 109] and during the second one Surah Al-Ikhlas [Chapter 112].
When he completes the two raka’ahs he should return to the Black Stone and touch it, if convenient. He goes out to the place of Sa’i (the mas’aa) and when he nears As-Safaa he recites: “Verily As-Safaa and Al-Marwah are among the holy rites of Allah” [2:158].
He ascends As-Safaa until he is able to see the Ka’bah. Facing the Ka’bah and raising his hands, he praises Allah and makes any supplications he chooses. The Prophet (may the peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) prayed thus: “There is no Deity but Allah alone,” three times, supplicating in between each time.
He descends As-Safaa and heads for Al-Marwah at a normal pace until he reaches the green marker. He should then jog fast until the next green marker. He then continues toward Al-Marwah at a normal pace. When he reaches it, he ascends it, faces the Qibla, raises his hands and repeats what he said on As-Safaa. He descends Al-Marwah heading towards As-Safaa, taking care to walk where walking is designated, and jog fast where jogging fast is designated.
He continues this procedure until he completes seven laps. Going from As-Safaa to Al-Marwah is a one lap and returning is another lap.
During his Sa’i he may recite what he wills of supplications, recitation of Qur'an, and remembrance of Allah.
In completion of Sa’i he shaves his head. A woman should clip her hair the length of a fingertip.
Shaving is preferable, except when Hajj is near and there isn’t sufficient time for the hair to grow back. In this case it’s best to clip the hair (trim it all over the head) so that some hair will remain for shaving during Hajj.
With that, the ‘Umrah is completed. At this point, a pilgrim is free to dress in other clothing, wear perfume and engage in marital relations, etc.
In the forenoon of the eighth day of Dhul-Hijjah, a pilgrim purifies himself once again, by bathing as he did before ‘Umrah, in the place in which he is staying, if convenient. He puts on his Ihram and says: “Here I am for Hajj. Here I am, oh Allah, here I am. Here I am. You have no partner. Here I am. Surely all praise, grace and dominion is Yours, and You have no partners.” (This is the Talbiyah).
If he fears that something will prevent him from completing his Hajj he should make a condition when he makes his intentions, saying: “If I am prevented by any obstacle my place of ending is wherever I am held up.” If he has no such fear, he doesn't make this condition.
A pilgrim goes to Mina and prays Dhuhr, Asr, Maghrib, Isha and Fajr there, shortening his four unit prayers so as to make them two units each, without combining them (i.e praying each four unit prayer as two units, in its prescribed time).
When the sun rises, he goes to Arafah and prays Dhuhr and Asr, combined at the time of Dhuhr, making each one two units. He should try to remain in the Namira Mosque until sunset if possible (if not, he should at least be within the boundaries of ‘Arafah). He should remember Allah and make as many supplications as possible while facing the Qibla.
The Prophet (may the peace and blessing of Allah be upon him) prayed thus: “There is no Deity but Allah alone. He has no partner. All dominion and praise are His and He is powerful over all things.”
If he grows weary it is permissible for him to engage in beneficial conversation with his companions or reading what he can find of beneficial books, especially those concerning Allah’s grace and abundant gifts. This will strengthen his hope in Allah.
He should then return to his supplications and be sure to spend the end of the day deep in supplication because the best of supplication is the supplication of the day of ‘Arafah.
At sunset he goes from ‘Arafah to Muzdalifah and prays there Maghrib, Isha, and Fajr. If he is tired or has little water, it is permissible for him to combine Maghrib and Isha. If he fears that he will not reach Muzdalifah until after midnight, he should pray before he reaches it for it is not permissible to delay prayer until after midnight. He remains there, in Muzdalifah, making supplications and remembering Allah till just before sunrise.
If he is weak and cannot handle the crowd during the throwing of the stones (Ar-Ramy) in Mina the next morning, it is permissible for him to go to Mina at the end of the night to stone the Jamrah before the arrival of the crowd. Near sunrise, a pilgrim goes from Muzdalifah to Mina. Upon reaching it he does the following:
These three should be done in the above order if convenient, but there is no restriction if one precedes another.
With that, one is allowed to come out of Ihram. He can wear other clothing and do everything that was lawful before Ihram excluding engaging in marital relations.
He goes to Makkah to perform Tawaf Al-lfadha and Sa’i. It is Sunnah to put perfume on before going to Makkah.
With the completion of this Tawaf and Sa’i, a pilgrim is allowed to do everything that was lawful before Ihram, including engaging in marital relations.
After performing Tawaf and Sa’i, he returns to Mina to spend the nights of the eleventh and twelfth days there.
He stones the three Jamrah in the afternoon of both the eleventh and twelfth days. He starts with the first Jamrah, which is furthest from Makkah, then the middle one, and lastly Jamrah Al-Aqaba. Each one should be stoned with seven consecutive pebbles accompanied by Takbeer (saying: Allahu Akbar). He stops after the first and middle Jamrah to make supplications facing the Qibla. It is not permissible to stone before noon on these two days. It is best to walk to the Jamrah, but riding is permissible.
If he is in a hurry after stoning on the twelfth day, he leaves Mina before sunset. But if he wishes to prolong his stay, which is best, he spends the night of the thirteenth in Mina and stones that afternoon in the same manner as on the twelfth day.
When he is ready to return to his country, he makes Tawaf Al-Wadaa (Farewell Tawaf), by performing seven circuits around the Ka’bah. Menstruating women and women experiencing postnatal discharge are not obligated to perform Tawaf Al-Wadaa.
1. A pilgrim can go to Madinah before or after Hajj. Prayer there is better than a thousand prayers elsewhere except in the Holy Mosque in Makkah (which is one hundred thousand prayers).
2. Upon reaching the mosque he prays two raka’ahs of salutation (tahiyyah al-masjid) or performs any obligatory prayer that is due.
3. He goes to the grave of the Prophet (may the peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) and he stands before it. He greets him saying, “May the peace, mercy, and blessings of Allah be upon you, O Prophet. May Allah grant you a good reward on behalf of your people.”
He takes a step or two to his right to position himself before Abu Bakr and greets him saying, “May the peace, mercy, and blessing of Allah be upon you, O Abu Bakr, Caliph of the Messenger of Allah. May Allah be pleased with you and grant you a good reward on behalf of Muhammad’s people.”
Then he takes a step or two to his right to position himself before ‘Umar and greets him saying, “May the peace, mercy and blessings of Allah be upon you, O ‘Umar, commander of the believers. May Allah be pleased with you and grant you a good reward on behalf of Muhammad’s people.”
4. In a state of purity, he goes to pray in Qubaa Mosque.
5. He goes to Al-Baqee’ to visit ‘Uthman’ s grave (may Allah be pleased with him). He stands before it and greets him saying: “May the peace, mercy and blessing of Allah be upon you, O ‘Uthman Commander of the Believers. May Allah be pleased with you and grant you a good reward on behalf of Muhammad’s people.” He greets any other Muslims in Al-Baqee’.
6. He goes to Uhud and visits the grave of Hamzah (may Allah be pleased with him) and the other martyrs there with him. He greets them and prays to Allah to grant them forgiveness, mercy and happiness.
1. That he be committed to Allah’s religious obligations upon him such as prayer in its time (in congregation for men).
2. That he avoids what Allah has prohibited such as obscenity, inequity and disobedience. “Let there be no obscenity, nor wickedness, nor wrangling during Hajj” [2:197].
3. That he avoids harming the Muslims with words or actions within the holy sites or elsewhere.
4. That he avoids all of the restrictions of Ihram:
Abaya’: cloak like, woolen wrap.
Posted by Ahmed Arwo